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APA 6th Edition Citation Style

Reference Work (Database)

Citation Elements in Order:  
1.  Author: Unknown
2.  Publication date: 2010
3.  Entry title: Desalination
4.  Editor: Unknown
5.  Title of reference work: Encyclopaedia Britannica Online (Academic edition)
6.  Digital object identifier (DOI): DOI is not available


Document Example:

reference work (library database)


Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:

  • Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
  • If there is no author, the article title comes first.
  • Use italics and "sentence-style" capitalization for reference work titles.
  • If no DOI is available, find and include the homepage URL of the publisher.

Desalination. (2010). In Encyclopaedia britannica online (Academic ed.). Retrieved from


In-Text Citations:

  • Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  • When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style" capitalization, and the year.

(“Desalination”, 2010)


  • Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
  • There must be a total match between the reference list and the parenthetical citation, so the article title must stand in place of an author’s name in the essay.

“Desalination” (2010) indicates that the first patent was granted in 1869.