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APA 6th Edition Citation Style

Live Events: Interviews, Class Lectures

Live events include interviews and class lectures.  

Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:

Because the information contained in emails, interviews and class lectures is not retrievable and thus cannot be verified by readers, treat emails, interviews and class lectures as personal communication.

  • Emails, interviews and class lectures are not included in the list of references.
  • Cite personal communications parenthetically in the main text of your paper only.
  • Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.

 

In-Text Citations:

Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible:

...(D. M. Haybron, personal communication, January 10, 2009)

Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative:

D. M. Haybron (personal communication, January 10, 2009) noted that...