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A noticeable change with APA 6th edition is an expanded section on citing electronic sources – in particular, the inclusion of DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) in the reference list.
What is a DOI?
A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique and permanent code assigned to many, but not all, electronically published sources. A DOI is a persistent link that will take you straight to a document no matter where it is located on the Internet. DOIs do not change.
When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed to identify or locate the content. Include the DOI as the final component of your source citation.
How do I find DOIs?
In best publishing practices, the DOI should be listed prominently on the first page of an article, whether in print or online.
Typically the DOI is located on the first page of the journal article near the copyright notice.
The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.
Working with DOIs
Use this format for the DOI in references: doi:xxxxxxx
Copy and paste the DOI into your reference list, to avoid transcription errors.
When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed to identify or locate the content.
|Subsequent citations in text||Parenthetical format, first citation in text||Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text|
|One work by one author||Walker (2007)||Walker (2007)||(Walker, 2007)||(Walker, 2007)|
|One work by two authors||Walker and Allen (2004)||Walker and Allen (2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)||(Walker & Allen, 2004)|
|One work by three authors||Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)||Bradley et al. (1999)||Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)||(Bradley et al., 1999)|
|One work by four authors||Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)||Bradley et al. (2006)||Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh 2006)||(Bradley et al., 2006)|
|One work by five authors||Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008)||Walker et al. (2008)||(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo 2008)||(Walker et al., 2008)|
|One work by six or more authors||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||Wasserstein et al. (2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)||(Wasserstein et al., 2005)|
|Groups (readily identified through abbreviation) as authors||National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)||NIMH (2003)||(National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2003)||(NIMH, 2003)|
|Groups (no abbreviation) as authors||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||University of Pittsburgh (2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)||(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)|
From the APA Publication Manual 6th ed (p. 177).
When a work's author is designated as "Anonymous," cite in text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date:
In the reference list, an anonymous work is alphabetized by the word Anonymous
Anonymous, (2010). Food safety shake-up need in the USA. The Lancet, 375(9732), 2122. Retrieved from http://www.thelancet.com
Reference list entries are not required for major classical religious works such as the Qur'an. Simply identify the first version you used in the first in-text citation.
Parts of classical works (such as chapters, verses, lines) are numbered systematically across all editions, so use these numbers instead of page numbers when referring to specific parts of your source.
In text citation: (Last name of author transliterated, year of publication).
Example: (Barādah, 1987)
Reference list citation: Last Name of author transliterated, Author’s first initial. (Year of publication). Arabic title transliterated and italicized [English translation of the title]. Place of publication: Name of Publisher.
Example: Barādah, M. (1987). Luʻbat al-nisyān [The game of forgetting]. Al-Ribāṭ: Dār al-Amān
For tips on how to do a transliteration of an Arabic script, please check the Library of Congress Arabic Romanization Table
If the text you are reading cites a primary source [to which you do not have access], how do you provide a citation?
The APA Publication Manual provides the following guidelines:
Allport's diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003).