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MGT 301: Organizational Behavior

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A - D

ABC analysis

The analysis of antecedents, behavior, and consequences when investigating work or job-related issues.


A biological or learned trait that permits a person to do something mental or physical.


The emotional segment of an attitude.

appreciative inquiry (AI)

An organizational change process that focuses on diagnosis and presentation of positive characteristics of change, the process, and outcomes.

Asch's line experiment

Showed how group pressure can influence individual decision making and preferences.


Mental states of readiness for need arousal.

attitude survey

A way to collect data or information about a person's opinion or reaction to an event, person, item, situation, or organization program.


The process of perceiving the causes of behavior and outcomes.

attribution leadership theory

The attributions people make about other individuals.


Formal power a person holds because of his or her position in the organization hierarchy. The recognition of authority is necessary for organizational effectiveness and is a cost of organizational membership.

banking time off

A reward practice of allowing employees to build up time-off credits for such things as good performance or attendance. Employees then receive the time off in addition to regular vacation time granted by the organization.


The behavior segment of an attitude.

behavior modification

An approach to motivation that uses the principles of operant conditioning, achieving individual learning by reinforcement. This term can be used interchangeably with the term organizational behavior modification.

behavioral self-management (BSM)

A process whereby a person is faced with immediate response alternatives involving different consequences. The person selects or modifies his behavior by managing cognitive processes, causes, or consequences.


A standard of excellence or achievement against which a firm's products or practices are measured or judged.

Big Five personality factors

An individual's traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extroversion, and openness to experiences.

boundary-spanning role

The role of an individual who must related to two different systems, usually an organization and some part of its environment.


A technique that provides creativity by encouraging idea generation in a group through noncritical discussion.


A psychological process resulting from work stress that results in emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and feelings of decreased accomplishment.

cafeteria-style fringe benefits

A compensation approach under which the employee is allowed to develop and allocate a personally attractive fringe benefit package. The employee is informed of what the total fringe benefits allowed will be and then distributes the benefits according to her preferences.


A dimension of organizational structure that refers to the extent to which top management retains authority to make decisions.

change agent

An intervener who brings a different perspective to a situation and challenges to status quo.

charismatic leadership

The ability to influence followers based on a supernatural gift and attractive powers. Followers enjoy being with the charismatic leader because they feel inspired, correct, and important.

code of ethics

An organization's formal document statement of its ethical values and expectations regarding employees' ethical behavior.

coercive power

Perceived capability to punish noncompliance of followers.


The perception, opinion, or belief segment of an attitude.

cognitive dissonance  

A mental state of anxiety that occurs when there's a conflict among an individual's various cognitions (e.g., attitudes and beliefs) after a decision has been made. Most individuals are motivated to reduce dissonance and achieve consonance.


Strength of group members' desires to remain in the group and their commitment to the group.

command group  

The group of subordinates who report to one particular manager. The command group is specified by the formal organization chart.


A sense of identification, involvement, and loyalty expressed by an employee toward the company.


The transmission of information and understanding through the use of common symbols, verbal and/or nonverbal.


A dimension of organizational structure that refers to the number of different jobs, units, and authority levels within an organization.


The perceived incompatibility between two or more values, goals, or needs.

Confucian dynamism  

The extent to which people believe in the importance of the values of persistence, status, thrift, and feeling shame and the unimportance of the values of personal stability, face saving, respect for tradition, and reciprocation of favors and gifts.

conscious goals  

The main goals that a person is striving for and is aware of when directing behavior.


Acts of the leader that show supportive concern for the followers in a group.

content motivation theories  

Theories that focus on the factors within a person that energize, direct, sustain, and stop behavior.

contingency approach to management  

Approach to management that believes there's no one best way to manage in every situation and managers must find different ways that fit different situations.

contingency design theory  

An approach to organization design that states that the effective structure depends on factors in the situation, including technology, environmental uncertainty, and management choice.

cross-cultural management  

The study of the behavior of individuals in organizations around the world.

culture shock cycle  

A three-phase cycle (fascination and interest, frustration and confusion, and adaptation) that most individuals experience when sent to another culture.


A means to achieve some result or to solve some problem. The outcome of a process that is influenced by many forces.

decision commitment  

The degree to which subordinates accept a particular decision. Participation in decisions often tends to increase the commitment of subordinates.

decision quality  

An important criterion in the Vroom-Yetton model that refers to objective aspects of a decision that influence subordinates' performance, aside from any direct impact on motivation.

delegation of authority  

The process by which authority is distributed downward in an organization.

Delphi process  

A technique used to improve group decision making that involves the solicitation and comparison of anonymous judgments on the topic of interest through a set of sequential questionnaires interspersed with summarized information and feedback of opinions from earlier responses.


The process by which an organization is structurally divided. Some of the more publicized divisions are by function, territory, product, customer, and project.

devil's advocate  

A person (people) who challenges others in terms of their logic, decisions, and analysis of a situation or problem.

diagonal communication  

Communication that cuts across functions and levels in an organization; important when members cannot communicate through other channels.


An important concept in the Lawrence and Lorsch research that refers to the process by which subunits in an organization develop particular attributes in response to the requirements imposed by their particular subenvironments. The greater the differences among the subunits' attributes, the greater is the differentiation.

dispositional attributions  

Emphasize some aspect of the individual, such as ability or skill, to explain behavior.

distributive justice  

The perception of fairness of the resources and rewards in an organization.


The vast array of physical and cultural differences such as race, gender, ethnicity, age, and other factors that constitute the spectrum of human differences.

division of labor  

The process of dividing work into relatively specialized jobs to achieve advantages of specialization.

downward communication  

Communication that flows from individuals in higher levels of the organization's hierarchy to those in lower levels. It includes management policies, instructions, and official news.

dysfunctional conflict  

Any confrontation or interaction between groups that hinders the achievement of organizational goals.

E - I

electronic mail (e-mail)  

Use of the Internet/intranet to transmit computer-generated text and documents.

emotional intelligence (EQ)  

The ability to accurately perceive, evaluate, express, and regulate emotions and feelings.

emotional labor  

The effort, energy, and planning that must be used to accomplish desired emotions (e.g., handling customer complaints).

employee assistance programs (EAPs)  

Programs designed to assist with a wide range of work- and nonwork-related stress-induced problems.

employee-centered leader  

A person who only generally supervises the work of others. He or she attempts to permit others to sense autonomy and support.


Giving employees permission to make decisions to complete workloads on time.

equity theory of motivation  

A theory that examines discrepancies within a person after the person has compared his or her input/output ratio to that of a reference person.

ERG theory of motivation  

A theory developed and tested by Alderfer that categorizes needs as existence, relatedness, and growth.

escalation of commitment  

Behavior of decision makers to adhere to a certain course of action in light of negative information about the viability of that course of action.


The study and consideration of moral values and behaviors that distinguish right from wrong activities.

expatriate manager  

A manager from the firm's home nation who's on a foreign assignment.


The perceived likelihood that a particular act will be followed by a particular outcome.

expectancy theory of motivation  

A theory in which the employee is faced with a set of first-level outcomes and selects an outcome based on how this choice is related to second-level outcomes. The preferences of the individual are based on the strength (valence) of desire to achieve a second-level state and the perception of the relationship between first- and second-level outcomes.

expert power  

The power to influence others based on special expertise.


In a learning situation, the decline in the response rate because of nonreinforcement.

extrinsic rewards  

Rewards external to the job, such as pay, promotion, or fringe benefits.

flexible manufacturing technology (FMT)  

Modern manufacturing methods that combine computer and robot to achieve high levels of production as well as high levels of flexibility.

formal groups  

Groups created by managerial decision to accomplish stated goals of the organization.

formal organization  

The philosophy, policies, structure, and systems of control of an organization.


A dimension of organization structure that refers to the extent to which rules, procedures, and other guides to action are written and enforced.

functional conflict  

A confrontation between groups that enhances and benefits the organization's performance.

functional job analysis (FJA)  

A method of job analysis that focuses on the worker's specific job activities, methods, machines, and output. Widely used to analyze and classify jobs.


An innovative reward strategy wherein employees share in the financial rewards of achieving set objectives.

global corporation  

An enterprise structured so that national boundaries become blurred.


The interdependency of transportation, distribution, communication, and economic networks across international boundaries.

GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness)  

A multiphase and multimethod program of international research that collects and analyzes data from 17,000 managers from 62 countries to understand how cultural variables influence leaders and their organizational cultures.


A specific target than an individual is trying to achieve; a goal is the target (object) of an action.

goal approach to effectiveness  

Perspective on effectiveness that emphasizes the central role of goal achievement as a criterion for assessing effectiveness.

goal commitment  

The amount of effort that is actually used to achieve a goal.

goal difficulty  

The degree of proficiency or the level of goal performance that is sought.

goal intensity  

The process of setting a goal or determining how to reach it.

goal setting  

The process of establishing goals. In many cases, goal setting involves a superior and subordinate working together to set the subordinate's goals for a specified period of time.

goal specificity  

The degree of quantitative precision (clarity) of the goal.


The informal communication network that transmits gossip, rumor, facts, and different types of information.


Collection of individuals in which behavior and/or performance of one member is influenced by behavior and/or performance of other members.


A cohesive group's desire for agreement interferes with the group's consideration of alternative solutions.

Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation  

The view that job satisfaction results from the presence of intrinsic motivators and that job dissatisfaction stems from not having extrinsic factors.

horizontal communication  

Communication that flows across functions in an organization; necessary for coordinating and integrating diverse organizational functions.

host-country nationals  

Workers from the local population.

humanistic personality theories  

Place emphasis on growth and self-actualization of people.

impression management tactics  

The behaviors individuals use to preserve their self-image and/or influence the ways in which others perceive them.

individual differences  

Individuals are similar, but they are also unique. The study of individual differences such as attitudes, perceptions, and abilities helps a manager explain differences in performance levels.


Individualism emphasizes pursuit of individual goals, needs, and success. Collectivism emphasizes group need, satisfaction, and performance.

informal groups  

Groups that arise from individual efforts and develop around common interests and friendships rather than deliberate design.

information richness  

Refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted in an effective manner.

informational diversity  

The differences in individuals' knowledge base and perspectives that influence group problem solving and overall group effectiveness.

initiating structure  

Leadership acts that imply the structuring of job tasks and responsibilities for followers.


In the expectancy theory of motivation, the relationship between first- and second-level outcomes.


A concept in the Lawrence and Lorsch research that refers to the process of achieving unity of effort among the organization's various subsystems. The techniques for achieving integration range from rules and procedures, to plans, to mutual adjustment.

intellectual capital  

The knowledge that resides in an organization.


A global network of integrated computers that provide computer users with information, documents, and communication capabilities.

interpersonal communication  

Communication that flows from individual to individual in face-to-face and group settings.

interpersonal rewards  

Extrinsic rewards such as receiving recognition or being able to interact socially on the job.

interpersonal style  

The way in which an individual prefers to relate to others.


A specific action or program undertaken to focus the change process on particular targets.


A private Internet-based network developed and maintained by a particular organization; intranets allow certain stakeholders to gain access to internal organizational information.

intrinsic rewards  

Rewards that are part of the job itself. The responsibility, challenge, and feedback characteristics of the job are intrinsic rewards.

J - O

job analysis  

Process of defining and studying a job in terms of behavior and specifying education and training needed to perform the job.

job-centered leader  

A person who closely supervises and observes the work of others.

job content  

The specific activities required in a job.

job context  

The physical environment and other working conditions, along with other factors considered to be extrinsic to a job.

job depth  

The amount of control that an individual has to alter or influence the job and the surrounding environment.

job description  

A summary statement of what an employee actually does on the job.

job descriptive index  

A popular and widely used 72-item scale that measures five job satisfaction dimensions.

job design  

The process by which managers decide individual job tasks and authority.

job enlargement  

An administrative action that involves increasing the range of a job by increasing the number of tasks. Supposedly, this action results in better performance and a more satisfied workforce.

job enrichment  

An approach, developed by Herzberg, that involves increasing the individual's discretion to select activities and outcomes. It seeks to improve task efficiency and human satisfaction by means of building into people's jobs greater scope for personal achievement and recognition, more challenging and responsible work, and more opportunity for individual advancement and growth.

job performance  

The outcome of jobs that relate to the purposes of the organization such as quality, efficiency, and other criteria of effectiveness.

job range  

The number of operations that a job occupant performs to complete a task.

job redesign  

Redesigning the jobs of individuals, usually along the lines suggested by the job characteristics model of job design, in order to improve performance. May be used as an intervention in organizational development.

job relationships  

The interpersonal relationships required or made possible on a job.

job requirements  

Factors such as education, experience, degrees, licenses, and other personal characteristics required to perform a job.

job rotation  

A form of training that involves moving an employee from one workstation to another. In addition to achieving the training objectives, this procedure is also designed to reduce boredom.

job satisfaction  

The attitude that workers have about their jobs. It results from their perception of the job.

job sharing  

A type of flexible work arrangement in which two or more employees divide a job's responsibilities, hours, pay, and benefits among themselves.

knowledge management  

The acquisition, storing, and application of knowledge that can improve the short- and long-term effectiveness of organizations.

leader–member relations  

A factor in the Fiedler contingency model that refers to the degree of confidence, trust, and respect that the leader obtains from the followers.


An attempt to use influence to motivate individuals to accomplish some goal.

leadership climate  

The nature of work environment in an organization that results from the leadership style and administrative practices.

learned needs theory  

A theory that proposes that a person with a strong need will be motivated to use appropriate behaviors to satisfy the need. A person's needs are learned from the culture of a society.


The process by which a relatively enduring change in behavior occurs as a result of practice.

legitimate power  

A person's ability to influence others by being in a more powerful position.

level 5 leadership  

A type of leadership in which the leader displays humility, self-motivation, and a strong professional will to advance the goals of the organization.

locus of control  

A personality characteristic that describes people who see the control of their lives as coming from inside themselves as internalizers. People who believe that their lives are controlled by external factors are externalizers.


A term used to describe political maneuvers in an organization. Used to designate a person as a manipulator and power abuser.


High masculinity in a culture designates assertiveness, dominance, and independence. High femininity in a culture designates interdependence, compassion, and emotional opinions.

matrix organization  

An organizational design that superimposes a product- or project-based design on an existing function-based design.

mechanistic model  

The type of organizational design that emphasizes the importance of production and efficiency. It is highly formalized, centralized, and complex.

media richness  

The data-carrying capacity of a particular communication medium.


A friend, coach, adviser, or sponsor who supports, encourages, and helps a less experienced protégé.

merit rating  

A formal rating system that is applied to hourly paid employees.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  

A widely used survey for assessing personality.

mood contagion  

Feelings and emotions spread from one person to another person.


A concept that describes the forces acting on or within an employee that initiate and direct behavior.

multinational corporations (MNCs)  

Firms that do business in more than one country.

multiple roles  

Roles performed simultaneously because the individual holds many positions in a variety of organizations and groups.

Myers-Briggs Indicator (MBTI)  

A scale that assesses personality or cognitive style. Respondents' answers are scored and interpreted to classify them as extroverted or introverted, sensory of intuitive, thinking or feeling, and perceiving or judging. Sixteen different personality types are possible.

national culture  

A set of values, attitudes, beliefs, and norms shared by a majority of the inhabitants of a country.

need for power (n Pow)  

A person's desire to have an impact on others. The impact can occur from such behaviors as strong action, producing emotion, or concern for reputation.

need hierarchy model  

Maslow assumed that the needs of a person depend on what he already has. This in a sense means that a satisfied need is not a motivator. Human needs organized in a hierarchy of importance are classified as physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and selfactualization.


Deficiencies that an individual experiences at a particular point in time.

negative reinforcement  

Reinforcement that strengthens a response because the response removes some painful or unpleasant stimulus or enables the organism to avoid it.

nominal group technique (NGT)  

A technique to improve group decision making that brings people together in a very structured meeting that does not allow for much verbal communication. The group decision is the mathematically pooled outcome of individual votes.

nonprogrammed decisions  

Decisions required for unique and complex management problems.

nonverbal communication  

Messages sent with body posture, facial expressions, and head and eye movements.


Generally agreed-upon standards of individual and group behavior developed as a result of member interaction over time.

operant conditioning  

Learning that occurs as a consequence of behavior.


Behaviors amenable to control by altering the consequences (rewards and punishments) that follow them.

organic model  

The organizational design that emphasizes the importance of adaptability and development. It is relatively informal, centralized, and simple.

organizational behavior (OB)  

The field of study that draws on theory, methods, and principles from various disciplines to learn about individuals' perceptions, values, learning capacities, and actions while working in groups and within the organization and to analyze the external environment's effect on the organization and its human resources, missions, objectives, and strategies.

organizational behavior modification (OB Mod or OBM)  

An operant approach to organization behavior. This term is use interchangeably with the term behavior modification.

organizational citizen behaviors (OCBs)  

Behaviors that go above and beyond expected behaviors, such as stepping in for a colleague who had an emergency or helping a person in another unit learn how a procedure works in the company.

organizational culture  

What the employees perceive and how this perception creates a shared sense and pattern of beliefs, values, and expectations.

organizational design  

A specific organizational structure that results from managers' decisions and actions. Also, the process by which managers choose among alternative frameworks of jobs and departments.

organizational development (OD)  

The process of preparing for and managing change in organizational settings.

organizational justice  

The degree to which individuals feel fairly treated within the organizations for which they work.


Entities that enable society to pursue accomplishments that can't be achieved by individuals acting alone.

organization structure  

The formal patterns of how people and jobs are grouped in an organization. The organization structure is often illustrated by an organization chart.

P - Z

parent-country nationals  

Individuals sent from the country in which the firm is headquartered. Often called expatriates.

path–goal leadership model  

Theory that suggests a leader needs to influence followers' perceptions of work goals, self-development goals, and paths to goal attainment.

perceived job content  

The characteristics of a job that define its general nature as perceived by the person who does the job.


The process by which an individual gives meaning to the environment. It involves organizing and interpreting various stimuli into a psychological experience.


A stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine commonalities and differences in people's behavior.

personality test  

Test used to measure emotional, motivational, interpersonal, and attitude characteristics that make up a person's personality.

person–environment (P–E) fit  

The extent to which work provides rewards that meet the person's needs and to which the employee's skills match the requirements of the job.

person–role conflict  

A type of conflict that occurs when the requirements of a position violate the basic values, attitudes, and needs of the individual occupying the position.

political behavior  

Behavior outside the normal power system designed to benefit an individual or a subunit.

pooled interdependence  

Interdependence that requires no interaction between groups because each group, in effect, performs separately.

position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)  

A method of job analysis that takes into account human characteristics as well as task and technological factors of jobs and job classes.

position power  

A factor in the Fiedler contingency model that refers to the power inherent in the leadership position.

positive reinforcement  

Action that increases the likelihood of a particular behavior.


Ability to get others to do what one want them to do.

power distance  

The degree to which members of a society accept differences in power and status among themselves.

procedural justice  

The perceived equity or fairness of the processes and procedures used to make resource and reward allocation decisions.

process conflict  

Type of intragroup conflict in which group members disagree as to the best method to accomplish a particular task.

process motivation theories  

Theories that describe and analyze how behavior is energized, directed, sustained, and stopped.


Activities that breathe life into organization structure. Common processes are communication, decision making, socialization, and career development.

programmed decisions  

Situations in which specific procedures have been developed for repetitive and routine problems.

psychodynamic personality theories  

Freudian approach that discusses the id, superego, and ego. Special emphasis is placed on unconscious determinants of behavior.

psychological contract  

An implied understanding of mutual contributions between a person and his or her organization.

psychological contract violation  

The perception of the person that his or her firm has failed to fulfill or has reneged on one or more obligations.


An uncomfortable consequence for a particular behavior response or the removal of a desirable reinforcer because of a particular behavior response. Managers can punish by application or removal.

Pygmalion effect  

The enhanced learning or performance that results from others having positive expectations of us.

qualitative overload  

Occurs when people feel they lack the ability to complete a job or that performance standards are too high.

quality of work life (QWL)  

Management philosophy that enhances employee dignity, introduces cultural change, and provides opportunities for growth and development.

quantitative overload  

Results from having too many things to do or insufficient time to complete a job.


The followers' skills and willingness to do a job.

reciprocal causation  

Argument that follower behavior affects leader behavior and leader behavior influences follower behavior.

reciprocal interdependence  

Interdependence that requires the output of each group in an organization to serve as input to other groups in the organization.


Management acknowledgement of work well done.


The redesign of business processes to achieve significant improvement in cost, service, quality, and speed.

referent power  

Power based on charisma due to personality or style of behavior.

relationship conflict  

Type of intragroup conflict in which group members are aware of interpersonal incompatibilities among themselves that can lead to feelings of dislike.

reward power  

A person's ability to reward the behavior of others.


An organized set of behaviors expected of an individual in a specific position.

role conflict  

Occurs when an individual's compliance with one set of expectations conflicts with compliance with another set of expectations.

role set  

Others' expectations for behavior of a person in a particular role.


The belief that one can perform adequately in a situation. Self-efficacy has three dimensions: magnitude, strength, and generality.

sequential interdependence  

Interdependence that requires one group to complete its task before another group can complete its task.

situational attributions  

Attributions that emphasize the environment's effect on behavior.

situational theories of leadership  

An approach to leadership that advocates that leaders understand their own behavior, the behavior of their subordinates, and the situation before utilizing a particular leadership style. This approach requires the leader to have diagnostic skills in human behavior.

skill-based pay  

Wages paid at a rate calculated and based on the skills employees possess and display in performing their jobs.


Task-related competencies.


A small group of engineers, technicians, and/or designers who are placed on a specialized team and isolated from the rest of the organization; the team's goal is to rapidly develop innovative ideas, products, or services.

social category diversity  

Explicit differences between members of a group based on race, gender ethnicity, and/or age.

social learning  

The extension of Skinner's work initiated by note psychologist Albert Bandura. Bandura views behavior as a function of a continuous interaction between cognitive (person), behavioral, and environmental determinants. Contrary to Skinner, Bandura believes that cognitive functioning must not be ignored in explaining and modifying behavior.

social loafing  

When individuals within a group hold back what they contribute to the group's effort and performance.

social support  

The comfort, assistance, or information received through formal or informal contacts with individuals or groups.


The process by which organizations bring new employees into the culture.

span of control  

The number of subordinates reporting to a specific superior. The span is a factor that affects the shape and height of an organizational structure.


A state of experience that can provide a person with a sense of direction and support inner wholeness or connectedness.

stakeholder approach to effectiveness  

Perspective that emphasizes the relative importance of different groups' and individuals' interests in an organization.


An overgeneralized, oversimplified, and selfperpetuating belief about people's personal characteristics.

strategic contingency  

Event or activity of crucial importance to completing a project or accomplishing a goal.


An adaptive response, mediated by individual differences, that is a consequence of any action, situation, or event that places special demands on a person.


A potentially harmful or threatening external event or situation that contributes to perceived stress.


Blueprint that indicates how people and jobs are grouped together in an organization. Structure is illustrated by an organization chart.


Extent to which other subunits can perform the job or task of a subunit.

superordinate goals  

Goals that cannot be achieved without the cooperation of the conflicting groups.


A grouping of elements that individually establish relationships with each other and that interact with their environment both as individuals and as a collective.

task conflict  

Type of intragroup conflict in which group members have differences in viewpoints and opinions regarding what the group's task is.

task structure  

Factor in Fiedler contingency model that refers to how structured a job is with regard to requirements, problem-solving alternatives, and feedback on job success.

team building  

Encouraging people who work together to meet as a group to identify common goals, improve communications, and resolve conflicts. A traditional intervention focusing on work groups, it has been given renewed interest as organizations rediscover the power of team effort.

technological change  

Any application of new ways of transforming resources into products or services.


Physical and mental actions by an individual to change the form or content of an object or idea.


Performing all or some portion of a job at sites away from the central work site.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  

A projective test that uses a person's analysis of pictures to evaluate such individual differences as need for achievement, need for power, and need for affiliation.

third-country nationals  

Employees from a country other than where the parent company is headquartered.

360-degree feedback  

Comparison of feedback evaluations of a person's boss, subordinates, and peers.

trait personality theories  

Theories based on the premise that predispositions direct the behavior of an individual in a consistent pattern.

trait theory of leadership  

Theory that attempts to identify specific characteristics (physical, mental, personality) associated with leadership success. Relies on research that relates various traits to certain success criteria.

transactional leadership  

Leader identifies what followers want or prefer and helps them achieve level of performance that results in rewards that satisfy them.

transformational leadership  

Ability to inspire and motivate followers to achieve results greater than originally planned for internal rewards.

Type A (managers)  

Managers who are aloof and cold toward others and are often autocratic leaders. Consequently, they are ineffective interpersonal communicators.

Type B (managers)  

Managers who seek good relationships with subordinates but are unable to express their feelings. Consequently, they are usually ineffective interpersonal communicators.

Type C (managers)  

Managers more interested in their own opinions than in those of others. Consequently, they are usually ineffective interpersonal communicators.

Type D (managers)  

Managers who feel free to express their feelings to others and to have others express their feelings; the most effective interpersonal communicators.

uncertainty avoidance  

The degree to which people are comfortable with ambiguous situations and with the inability to predict future events with accuracy.

upward communication  

Upward communication flows from individuals at lower levels of the organization structure to those at higher levels. Among the most common upward communication flows are suggestion boxes, group meetings, and appeal or grievance procedures.


The strength of a person's preference for a particular outcome.

value diversity  

Differences in group members' opinions regarding what the group's tasks, goals, or mission should be.


The conscious, affective desires of wants of people that guide their behavior. Basic guidelines and beliefs that a decision maker uses when confronted with a situation requiring choice.

virtual team  

A team that utilizes information technology and telecommunications so that members in remote locations can work together on projects.

Vroom-Yetton model  

Leadership model that specifies leadership decision-making procedures most effective in each of several different situations: two autocratic (AI, AII); two consultative (CI, CII); one oriented toward joint decisions of the leaders and group (GII).