Skip to main content
University Library

IEEE Citation Style

IEEE Citation Style Guide

The purpose of this guide

This guide is intended to provide guidance to students on the use of the IEEE citation style. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' citation method is an internationally accepted format, most often used in technical fields. 

How to use this guide

Please use the tabs on the left to navigate to specific IEEE citation examples, by material type. Follow the examples on screen or print for future reference. 

About The IEEE Citation Style

The IEEE style uses a single sequentially ordered note number to cite all references to each source mentioned in-text. This means that a citation is given in-text, consisting of a number enclosed by square brackets. A reference list or work cited page, displayed at the end of the paper provides full details of all references cited in-text. The references, in the work cited page, are ordered as they appear in the in-text references (in order of citation, not in alphabetical order).  

Note: When citing an item with three or more authors, note only the first author and use et al.

Note: The basic guideline for citing on-line sources is to follow the standard citation for the source given previously and add the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) at the end of the citation, or add the DOI in place of page numbers if the source is not paginated. The DOI for each IEEE conference article is assigned when the article is processed for inclusion in the IEEE Xplore digital library and is included with the reference data of the article in Xplore. 

In-text references examples:

Using this system, references are numbered in the order in which they are first cited in the text. (If the same reference is cited later in the text, the same number is given). 

"The theory was first put forward in 1987 [1]" 

"G. O. Young [2] has argued that......." 

"A recent studies [3] have suggested that..." 

 

Reference list / works cited page example:

The complete reference / citation of the source is then provided in a works-cited list (organized in order of citation) at the end of your essay.

[1] D. Sarunyagate, Lasers, New York: McGraw Hill, 1996.

[2]  G. O. Young, "Synthetic structure of industrial plastics," in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.

[3]  M. N. DeMers, Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley, 2005.

Why Should I Use Citations

In addition to providing your reader with essential information on the sources you have utilized to write your paper, writers who properly use the IEEE Citation Style also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of the citation style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material by other writers.